Constructing Achievement Tests, 2nd Edition

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Journal Help. Notifications View Subscribe. Hide Show all. A test should be constructed based on the learning objectives so it measures what it really intends to measure. It also should be assured that it fulfills the criteria of good test, one of which is item validity. Item validity concerns on how each item measures what has been established in blueprint.

However, analyzing item validity is insufficient since it is only a part of item analysis. Therefore, the urge to analyze item quality is imperative. In this case, the quality of test items is crucial to be analyzed. In analyzing quality of test items, ANATES was employed to investigate item discrimination, item difficulty, and item validity for practicality and efficiency. The result demonstrated that posttest instrument needed to be revised in terms of item difficulty and effectiveness of distractors. Full Text: PDF. References Alderson, J. Testing in Language Program.

Oxon: Routledge Gronlund, N. Heaton, J. For example, some critics say that poorly paid employees will score tests badly. Sometimes states pay to have two or more scorers read each paper; if their scores do not agree, then the paper is passed to additional scorers. Open-ended components of tests are often only a small proportion of the test.

Most commonly, a major academic test includes both human-scored and computer-scored sections. Along with scoring the actual tests, teachers are being scored on how well their own students are performing on the tests. Teachers are faced with the incredible pressure to continuously bring scores up to be judged on whether or not they are worthy of keeping their job.

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There has been a lot of discussion covering how accurate of a way that to score a teachers' success because there are so many factors that go in to how well his or her students perform. Students' intellectual level is judged by the score they receive, but the issue is that even if a student scores well on a standardized test that gets them to college, that does not imply that the student is smart. A student can do well on the test and fail out of college.

It is not the best indicator of how well a student actually performs, but how well they test. There is a lack of oversight. Teachers are told to watch over the students and be as organized as possible when collecting and grading the tests, but there are numerous sources stating all of these instances where students, even teachers are cheating. Students have been known to somehow accommodate the answers, or during breaks, teachers are not told to watch over the conversations held; they could easily discuss questions and figure out the answers together.

Teachers, more of which are in "desperate situations" find that they are changing the answers for their students themselves to make it look like they are great teachers and it would take away from the pressure they feel in raising scores. Teacher 1: This answer mentions one of the required items, so it is correct. Teacher 2: This answer is correct. Teacher 1: I feel like this answer is good enough, so I'll mark it correct. Teacher 2: This answer is correct, but this good student should be able to do better than that, so I'll only give partial credit.

Teacher 1: I feel like this answer is correct and complete, so I'll give full credit. Teacher 2: This answer is correct, so I'll give full points.

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Teacher 1: This answer does not mention any of the required items. No points. Teacher 2: This answer is wrong. No credit. Teacher 1: This answer is wrong. Teacher 2: This answer is wrong, but this student tried hard and the sentence is grammatically correct, so I'll give one point for effort. There are two types of standardized test score interpretations: a norm-referenced score interpretation or a criterion-referenced score interpretation.

Either of these systems can be used in standardized testing. What is important to standardized testing is whether all students are asked equivalent questions, under equivalent circumstances, and graded equally. In a standardized test, if a given answer is correct for one student, it is correct for all students. Graders do not accept an answer as good enough for one student but reject the same answer as inadequate for another student.

The considerations of validity and reliability typically are viewed as essential elements for determining the quality of any standardized test. However, professional and practitioner associations frequently have placed these concerns within broader contexts when developing standards and making overall judgments about the quality of any standardized test as a whole within a given context.

Qualities and Standards

In the field of evaluation , and in particular educational evaluation , the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation [29] has published three sets of standards for evaluations. Each publication presents and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. The standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation. Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote educational evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate.

In these sets of standards, validity and reliability considerations are covered under the accuracy topic. The tests are aimed at ensuring that student evaluations will provide sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance, however; standardized tests offer narrow information on many forms of intelligence and relying on them harms students because they inaccurately measure a student's potential for success.

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In the field of psychometrics , the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing [33] place standards about validity and reliability, along with errors of measurement and issues related to the accommodation of individuals with disabilities. The third and final major topic covers standards related to testing applications, credentialing , plus testing in program evaluation and public policy. Standardized testing is considered important and these tests do assess what is taught on the national level.

They are used to measure objectives and how schools are meeting educational state standards. There are three primary reasons for Standardized tests: Comparing among test takers, Improvement of ongoing instruction and learning, and Evaluation of instruction. Considering the information presented above, students undergoing the testing have been told to not spend copious amounts of their own time to study and prepare for the tests, although students believe they need to do well to ensure they don't let down their school.

Standardized tests put large amounts of pressure on students. Some children who are considered at the top of their class choke when it comes to standardized tests such as the citywide.

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Standardized testing is used as a public policy strategy to establish stronger accountability measures for public education. While the National Assessment of Education Progress NAEP has served as an educational barometer for some thirty years by administering standardized tests on a regular basis to random schools throughout the United States, efforts over the last decade at the state and federal levels have mandated annual standardized test administration for all public schools across the country.

The idea behind the standardized testing policy movement is that testing is the first step to improving schools, teaching practice, and educational methods through data collection. Proponents argue that the data generated by the standardized tests act like a report card for the community, demonstrating how well local schools are performing. Critics of the movement, however, point to various discrepancies that result from current state standardized testing practices, including problems with test validity and reliability and false correlations see Simpson's paradox.

Development of the Arithmetic Subtest of the School Achievement Test-Second Edition

Critics also charge that standardized tests encourage " teaching to the test " at the expense of creativity and in-depth coverage of subjects not on the test. Multiple choice tests are criticized for failing to assess skills such as writing. Furthermore, student's success is being tracked to a teacher's relative performance, making teacher advancement contingent upon a teacher's success with a student's academic performance. Ethical and economical questions arise for teachers when faced with clearly underperforming or underskilled students and a standardized test.

Critics also object to the type of material that is typically tested by schools. Although standardized tests for non-academic attributes such as the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking exist, schools rarely give standardized tests to measure initiative, creativity, imagination, curiosity, good will, ethical reflection, or a host of other valuable dispositions and attributes. One of the main advantages of standardized testing is that the results can be empirically documented; therefore, the test scores can be shown to have a relative degree of validity and reliability , as well as results which are generalizable and replicable.

It may be difficult to account for differences in educational culture across schools, difficulty of a given teacher's curriculum, differences in teaching style, and techniques and biases that affect grading. This makes standardized tests useful for admissions purposes in higher education, where a school is trying to compare students from across the nation or across the world. Performance on these exams have been speculated to change based on the way standards like the Common Core State Standards CCSS line up with top countries across the world.

Focus is defined as the number of topics covered in each grade; the idea is that the fewer topics covered in each grade, the more focus can be given to each topic. The definition of coherence is adhering to a sequence of topics covered that follows the natural progression or logical structure of mathematics. With the most number of topics covered on average, the current state standards had the lowest focus. They encourage educational materials to go from covering a vast array of topics in a shallow manner to a few topics in much more depth.

Standardized tests also remove teacher bias in assessment.


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Research shows that teachers create a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy in their assessment of students, granting those they anticipate will achieve with higher scores and giving those who they expect to fail lower grades. Another advantage is aggregation. A well designed standardized test provides an assessment of an individual's mastery of a domain of knowledge or skill which at some level of aggregation will provide useful information. That is, while individual assessments may not be accurate enough for practical purposes, the mean scores of classes, schools, branches of a company, or other groups may well provide useful information because of the reduction of error accomplished by increasing the sample size.

Opponents claim that standardized tests are misused and uncritical judgments of intelligence and performance, but supporters argue that these aren't negatives of standardized tests, but criticisms of poorly designed testing regimes. Test scores are in some cases used as a sole, mandatory, or primary criterion for admissions or certification. For example, some U. Adequate scores on these exit exams are required for high school graduation. The General Educational Development test is often used as an alternative to a high school diploma.

Other applications include tracking deciding whether a student should be enrolled in the "fast" or "slow" version of a course and awarding scholarships. In the United States, many colleges and universities automatically translate scores on Advanced Placement tests into college credit, satisfaction of graduation requirements, or placement in more advanced courses. Generalized tests such as the SAT or GRE are more often used as one measure among several, when making admissions decisions.

Some public institutions have cutoff scores for the SAT, GPA , or class rank, for creating classes of applicants to automatically accept or reject. Heavy reliance on standardized tests for decision-making is often controversial, for the reasons noted above. Critics often propose emphasizing cumulative or even non-numerical measures, such as classroom grades or brief individual assessments written in prose from teachers. Supporters argue that test scores provide a clear-cut, objective standard that serves as a valuable check on grade inflation.

The National Academy of Sciences recommends that major educational decisions not be based solely on a single test score. Test scores are often perceived as the "sole criteria" simply because they are the most difficult, or the fulfillment of other criteria is automatically assumed. One exception to this rule is the GED , which has allowed many people to have their skills recognized even though they did not meet traditional criteria. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Test administered and scored in a predetermined, standard manner. Main article: Imperial examination. Further information: List of standardized tests in the United States.

Educational Leadership. Retrieved In Good, Thomas L. SAGE Publications. Retrieved 2 May The New York Times. Encyclopedia for Background Information. Gale Cengage Learning. Retrieved 25 January Albany: State University of New York, Encyclopedias for Background Information. Time Inc. Phi Delta Kappan. The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 January Bright Hub Education9 June Department of Education". Educational Researcher. Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent. SAGE Publications, Archived from the original on 15 October The Program Evaluation Standards, 2nd Edition.

James April Oxford Learning. Columbia University. Spring Archived from the original PDF on



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