Key issues covered include abiographical method of considering objects and their relation tothe creation of personhood; methodological issues of siteformation; a questioning of the assumption that excavated data isa more or less accurate reflection of the operation of pastsocial practices; and a discussion of what happened to piecesmissing from an assemblage. It concludes by seeking to put Balkanprehistory back together again by looking at variations in socialpractices and the construction of personhood at differentsocio-spatial levels. This is a highly original work that attempts to take fragmentation studies further towards integrating A Companion to Ancient Egypt.
The World Almanac and Book of Facts Love in the Afternoon. The "Which? Captain Alatriste : A swashbuckling tale of action and adventure. To this day, the Roman legacy is clearly visible in the numerous monuments and artifacts scattered throughout the Balkans, and most importantly in the Latin-based languages used by almost 25 million people in the area the Balkan Romance languages. However, the Roman influence failed to dissolve Greek culture, which maintained a predominant status in the Eastern half of the Empire, and continued to be strong in the southern half of the Balkans.
Beginning in the 3rd century AD, Rome's frontiers in the Balkans were weakened because of internal political and economic disorders. During this time, the Balkans, especially Illyricum , grew to greater importance. It became one of the Empire's four prefectures, and many warriors, administrators and emperors arose from the region. Many rulers built their residences in the region. Though the situation had stabilized temporarily by the time of Constantine , waves of non-Roman peoples, most prominently the Thervings , Greuthungs and Huns , began to cross into the territory, first in the case of the Thervingi as refugees with imperial permission to take shelter from their foes the Huns, then later as invaders.
Turning on their hosts after decades of servitude and simmering hostility, Thervingi under Fritigern and later Visigoths under Alaric I eventually conquered and laid waste [ citation needed ] the entire Balkan region before moving westward to invade Italy itself. By the end of the Empire the region had become a conduit for invaders to move westward, as well as the scene of treaties and complex political maneuvers by Romans, Goths and Huns, all seeking the best advantage for their peoples amid the shifting and disorderly final decades of Roman imperial power.
Christianity first came to the area when Saint Paul and some of his followers traveled in the Balkans passing through Thracian , Illyrian and Greek populated areas. Subsequently, Christian colonists, soldiers and slaves came to Dacia and spread Christianity. When Emperor Constantine of Rome issued the Edict of Milan in , thus ending all Roman-sponsored persecution of Christianity, the area became a haven for Christians.
Just twelve years later in , Constantine assembled the First Council of Nicaea. In , Theodosius I made Christianity the official religion of Rome. The East-West Schism , known also as the Great Schism though this latter term sometimes refers to the later Western Schism , was the event that divided Christianity into Western Catholicism and Greek Eastern Orthodoxy , following the dividing line of the Empire in Western Latin-speaking and Eastern Greek-speaking parts.
Though normally dated to , when Pope Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius excommunicated each other, the East-West Schism was actually the result of an extended period of estrangement between the two Churches. The primary claimed causes of the Schism were disputes over papal authority—the Pope claimed he held authority over the four Eastern patriarchs , while the patriarchs claimed that the Pope was merely a first among equals—and over the insertion of the filioque clause into the Nicene Creed.
Most serious and real cause of course, was the competition for power between the old and the new capitals of the Roman Empire Rome and Constantinople. There were other, less significant catalysts for the Schism, including variance over liturgical practices and conflicting claims of jurisdiction.
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During most of its history it controlled provinces in the Balkans and Asia Minor. Unlike the Western Roman Empire, which met a famous if rather ill-defined death in the year AD, the Eastern Roman Empire came to a much less famous but far more definitive conclusion at the hands of Mehmet II and the Ottoman Empire in the year Its expert military and diplomatic power ensured inadvertently that Western Europe remained safe from many of the more devastating invasions from eastern peoples, at a time when the still new and fragile Western Christian kingdoms might have had difficulty containing it.
The magnitude of influence and contribution the Byzantine Empire made to Europe and Christendom has only begun to be recognised recently. The Emperor Justinian I's formation of a new code of law, the Corpus Juris Civilis , served as a basis of subsequent development of legal codes. Byzantium played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy.
Its rich historiographical tradition preserved ancient knowledge upon which splendid art, architecture, literature and technological achievements were built. This is embodied in the Byzantine version of Christianity, which spread Orthodoxy and eventually led to the creation of the so-called "Byzantine commonwealth" a term coined by 20th-century historians throughout Eastern Europe. Early Byzantine missionary work spread Orthodox Christianity to various Slavic peoples, amongst whom it still is a predominant religion.
Jewish communities were also spread through the Balkans at this time, while the Jews were primarily Romaniotes. Throughout its history, its borders were ever fluctuating, often involved in multi-sided conflicts with not only the Arabs, Persians and Turks of the east, but also with its Christian neighbours- the Bulgarians , Serbs, Normans and the Crusaders, which all at one time or another conquered large amounts of its territory. By the end, the empire consisted of nothing but Constantinople and small holdings in mainland Greece, with all other territories in both the Balkans and Asia Minor gone.
The conclusion was reached in , when the city was successfully besieged by Mehmet II, bringing the Second Rome to an end. Coinciding with the decline of the Roman Empire, many "barbarian" tribes passed through the Balkans, most of whom did not leave any lasting state. During these "Dark Ages", Eastern Europe, like Western Europe, regressed culturally and economically, although enclaves of prosperity and culture persisted along the coastal towns of the Adriatic and the major Greek cities in the south.
The first such barbarian tribe to enter the Balkans were the Goths. From northern East Germany, via Scythia , they pushed southwards into the Roman Balkans following the threat of the Huns. These Goths were eventually granted lands inside the Byzantine realm south of the Danube , as foederati allies. However, after a period of famine, the proto- Visigoths rebelled and defeated the emperor in The Visigoths subsequently sacked Rome in , and in an attempt to deal with them, they were granted lands in France.
The Huns , a confederation of a Turkic-Uralic ruling core that subsequently incorporated various Germanic, Sarmatian and Slavic tribes, moved west into Europe entering Pannonia in — AD. The Huns are supposed to have triggered the great German migrations into western Europe. From their base, the Huns subdued many people and carved out a sphere of terror extending from Germany and the Baltic to the Black Sea. With the death of Attila the Hun in AD, succession struggles led to the rapid collapse of Hun prestige and subsequent disappearance from Europe.
In the meantime, the Ostrogoths freed themselves from Hunnish domination in AD and became foedorati as well. The Ostrogoths too migrated westwards, commissioned by the Byzantines, and established a state in Italy. In the second half of the 5th- and first of the 6th century, new Germanic barbarian tribes entered the Balkans.
The Gepids , having lived in Dacia in the 3rd century with the Goths, settled Pannonia and eventually conquered Singidunum Belgrade and Sirmium Sremska Mitrovica , establishing a short-lived kingdom in the 6th century. The Lombards entered Pannonia in s, defeated the Gepids and absorbed them. In they moved into northern Italy, establishing their own kingdom at the expense of the Ostrogoths.
The Slavs , known as the Sklavenoi , migrated in successive waves. Small numbers might have moved down as early as the 3rd century [ citation needed ] however the bulk of migration did not occur until the 6th century. Most still remained subjects of the Roman Empire. They continuously raided the Balkans, contributing to the general decline of the area that had begun centuries earlier. After their unsuccessful siege on Constantinople in , they limited themselves to Central Europe.
Parts and Wholes, Fragmentation in Prehistoric Context by John Chapman | | Booktopia
They ruled over the Western Slavs that had already inhabited the region. By the 10th century, the Avar confederacy collapsed due to internal conflicts, Frankish and Slavic attacks. The remnant Avars were subsequently absorbed by the Slavs and Magyars. The Bulgars , a Turkic people of Central Asia , first appeared in a wave commenced with the arrival of Asparuh 's Bulgars.
Asparuh was one of Kubrat's, the Great Khan, successors. They had occupied the fertile plains of the Ukraine for several centuries until the Khazars swept their confederation in the s and triggered their further migration. One part of them — under the leadership of Asparuh — headed southwest and settled in the s in present-day Bessarabia. In AD they invaded Moesia and Dobrudja and formed a confederation with the local Slavic tribes who had migrated there a century earlier. The same year is usually regarded as the year of the establishment of Bulgaria see History of Bulgaria.
A smaller group of Bulgars under Khan Kouber settled almost simultaneously in the Pelagonian plain in western Macedonia after spending some time in Panonia. Some Bulgars actually entered Europe earlier with the Huns. After the disintegration of the Hunnic Empire the Bulgars dispersed mostly to eastern Europe. They entered Europe in the 10th century AD, settling in Pannonia. There they encountered a predominantly Slavic populace and Avar remnants.
The Magyars were a Uralic people, originating from west of the Ural Mountains. They learned the art of horseback warfare from Turkic people. They then migrated further west around AD, settling in the Don-Dnieper area. Here they were subjects of the Khazar Khaganate. They were neighboured by the Bulgars and Alans. They sided with 3 rebel Khazar tribes against the ruling factions. Their loss in this civil war, and ongoing battles with the Pechenegs, was probably the catalyst for them to move further west into Europe.
The local Romans and Romanized remnants of the Iron Age populace of the Balkans began their assimilation into mainly the Slavs and Greeks , however, notable Latin-speaking communities are known to have survived. In literature, these Romance-speakers are known as " Vlachs ". Archaeological evidence indicate a Romanized population in Transylvania by at least the 8th century.
By the 7th and 8th centuries, the Roman Empire existed only south of the Danube River in the form of the Byzantine Empire, with its capital at Constantinople. In this ethnically diverse closing area of the Roman Empire, Vlachs were recognized as those who spoke Latin, the official language of the Byzantine Empire used only in official documents, until the 6th century when it was changed to the more popular Greek.
These original Vlachs probably consisted of a variety of ethnic groups most notably Thracians, Dacians, Illyrians who shared the commonality of having been assimilated in language and culture of the Roman Empire with the Roman colonists settled in their areas. In the 7th century the Bulgaria was established by Khan Asparuh. It greatly increased in strength in the coming centuries stretching from Dnieper to Budapest and the Mediterranean. Bulgaria dominated the Balkans for the next four centuries and was instrumental in the adoption of Christianity in the region and among other Slavs.
Bulgarian Tsar Simeon I the Great , following the cultural and political course of his father Boris I , ordered the creation of the Bulgarian Alphabet , which was later spread by missionaries to the north reaching modern Russia. The Uprising of Asen and Peter was a revolt of Bulgarians and Vlachs   living in Moesia and the Balkan Mountains , then the theme of Paristrion of the Byzantine Empire , caused by a tax increase. It began on 26 October , the feast day of St. Demetrius of Thessaloniki , and ended with the restoration of Bulgaria with the creation of the Second Bulgarian Empire , ruled by the Asen dynasty.
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In building its maritime commercial empire, the Republic of Venice dominated the trade in salt ,  acquired control of most of the islands in the Aegean , including Cyprus and Crete , and became a major "power" in the Near East and in all the Balkans. Venice seized a number of locations on the eastern shores of the Adriatic sea before , partly for purely commercial reasons, but also because pirates based there were a menace to its trade.
Venice became a fully imperial power following the Venetian-financed Fourth Crusade , which in captured and in sacked and conquered Constantinople , dividing the Byzantine Empire into several smaller states and established the Latin Empire. Venice subsequently carved out a sphere of influence in the Aegean known as the Duchy of the Archipelago , and also gained control of the island of Crete.
The last Latin emperor, Baldwin II , went into exile, but the imperial title survived, with several pretenders to it, until the 14th century. From the 14th century, Venice controlled most of the maritime commerce of the Balkans with important colonial possessions on the Adriatic and Aegean coasts.
Venice's long decline started in the 15th century, when it first made an unsuccessful attempt to hold Thessalonica against the Ottomans — She also sent ships to help defend Constantinople against the besieging Turks The war lasted thirty years and cost Venice many of the eastern Mediterranean possessions.
Slowly the Republic of Venice lost nearly all possessions in the Balkans, maintaining in the 18th century only the Adriatic areas of Istria , Dalmatia and Albania Veneta. The Venetian island of Corfu was the only area of Greece never occupied by the Turks. Much of the Balkans was under Ottoman rule throughout the Early modern period. Ottoman rule was long, lasting from the 14th century up until the early 20th in some territories.
The Ottoman Empire was religiously, linguistically and ethnically diverse, and, at times, a much more tolerant place for religious practices when compared to other parts of the world. Among the Orthodox Christians of the empire the Rum Millet a common identity was forged based on a shared sense of time defined by the ecclesiastical calendar, saint's days and feasts.
The social structure of the Balkans in the late 18th century was complex. The Ottoman rulers exercised control chiefly in indirect ways. The Republic of Ragusa paid an annual tribute but otherwise was free to pursue its rivalry with the Republic of Venice. The two Romance-speaking principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia had their own nobility, but were ruled by Greek families chosen by the Sultan. In Greece, the elite comprised clergymen and scholars, but there was scarcely any Greek aristocracy. A million or more Turks had settled in the Balkans, typically in smaller urban centers where they were garrison troops, civil servants, and craftsmen and merchants.
There were also important communities of Jewish and Greek merchants. The Turks and Jews were not to be found in the countryside, so there was a very sharp social differentiation between the cities and their surrounding region in terms of language, religion and ethnicity. The Sultan favoured and protected the Orthodox clergy, primarily as a protection against the missionary zeal of Roman Catholics.
The rise of Nationalism under the Ottoman Empire caused the breakdown of millet concept. With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation and the centuries of the relations between House of Osman and the provinces, which turned into states.
Unquestionably, understanding the Ottoman conception of nationhood helps us to understand what happened in the Balkans in the late Ottoman period. The bloody suppression of the April Uprising in Bulgaria, became occasion of the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War — and the Liberation of Bulgaria in In the wake of the Russia's smashing victory in a war with Turkey, —78 , the urgent need was to stabilize and reorganize the Balkans, and set up new nations.
Parts and Wholes: object categorisation and fragmentation in prehistoric context
German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck , who led the Congress, undertook to adjust boundaries to minimize the risks of major war, while recognizing the reduced power of the Ottoman Empire, and balance the distinct interests of the great powers. As a result, Ottoman holdings in Europe declined sharply; Bulgaria was established as an independent principality inside the Ottoman Empire, but was not allowed to keep all its previous territory. Bulgaria lost Eastern Rumelia , which was restored to the Turks under a special administration. Macedonia, and East and Western Thrace were returned outright to the Turks, who promised reform and Northern Dobrudja became part of Romania, which achieved full independence but had to turn over part of Bessarabia to Russia.
Serbia and Montenegro finally gained complete independence, but with smaller territories. Britain took over Cyprus. The results were at first hailed as a great achievement in peacemaking and stabilization. However, most of the participants were not fully satisfied, and grievances regarding the results festered until they exploded in world war in Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece made gains, but far less than they thought they deserved. The Ottoman Empire, called at the time the "sick man of Europe," was humiliated and significantly weakened, rendering it more liable to domestic unrest and more vulnerable to attack.
Although Russia had been victorious in the war that caused the conference, it was humiliated at Berlin, and resented its treatment. Austria gained a great deal of territory, which angered the South Slavs, and led to decades of tensions in Bosnia and Herzogovina. Bismarck became the target of hatred of Russian nationalists and Pan-Slavists, and found that he had tied Germany too closely to Austria in the Balkans.
In the long-run, tensions between Russia and Austria-Hungary intensified, as did the nationality question in the Balkans. The congress was aimed at the revision of the Treaty of San Stefano and at keeping Constantinople in Ottoman hands. The Congress of Berlin returned to the Ottoman Empire territories that the previous treaty had given to the Principality of Bulgaria , most notably Macedonia , thus setting up a strong revanchist demand in Bulgaria that in was one of many causes of the First Balkan War.
The Balkan Wars were two wars that took place in the Balkans in and Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the first war; one of the four, Bulgaria, was defeated in the second war. The Ottoman Empire lost nearly all of its holdings in Europe. Austria-Hungary, although not a combatant, was weakened as a much enlarged Serbia pushed for union of the South Slavic peoples.
Following the assassination, Austria-Hungary sent Serbia an ultimatum in July with several provisions largely designed to prevent Serbian compliance.
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When Serbia only partially fulfilled the terms of the ultimatum, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July They had a couple of motives. In part they feared the power of Serbia and its ability to sow dissent and disruption in the empire's "south-Slav" provinces under the banner of a "greater Slav state". Another hope was that they could annex Serbian territories in order to change the ethnic composition of the empire. With more Slavs in the Empire, some in the German-dominated half of the government hoped to balance the power of the Magyar-dominated Hungarian government.
Until more peaceful elements had been able to argue against these military strategies, either through strategic considerations or political ones. However, Franz Ferdinand, a leading advocate of a peaceful solution, had been removed from the scene, and more hawkish elements were able to prevail. Another factor in this was the development in Germany giving the Dual-Monarchy a "blank cheque" to pursue a military strategy that ensured Germany's backing.
Austro-Hungarian planning for operations against Serbia was not extensive and they ran into many logistical difficulties in mobilizing the army and beginning operations against the Serbs. They encountered problems with train schedules and mobilization schedules, which conflicted with agricultural cycles in some areas. When operations began in early August Austria-Hungary was unable to crush the Serbian armies as many within the monarchy had predicted.
One difficulty for the Austro-Hungarians was that they had to divert many divisions north to counter advancing Russian armies. Planning for operations against Serbia had not accounted for possible Russian intervention, which the Austro-Hungarian army had assumed would be countered by Germany. However, the German army had long planned on attacking France before turning to Russia given a war with the Entente powers. See: Schlieffen Plan Poor communication between the two governments led to this catastrophic oversight.
As a result, Austria-Hungary's war effort was damaged almost beyond redemption within a couple of months of the war beginning. The Serb army, which was coming up from the south of the country, met the Austrian army at the Battle of Cer beginning on August 12, The Serbians were set up in defensive positions against the Austro-Hungarians. The first attack came on August 16, between parts of the 21st Austro-Hungarian division and parts of the Serbian Combined division.
In harsh night-time fighting, the battle ebbed and flowed, until the Serbian line was rallied under the leadership of Stepa Stepanovic. Three days later the Austrians retreated across the Danube, having suffered 21, casualties against 16, Serbian casualties. This marked the first Allied victory of the war. The Austrians had not achieved their main goal of eliminating Serbia. In the next couple of months the two armies fought large battles at Drina September 6 to November 11 and at Kolubara from November 16 to December In the autumn, with many Austro-Hungarians tied up in heavy fighting with Serbia, Russia was able to make huge inroads into Austria-Hungary capturing Galicia and destroying much of the Empire's fighting ability.
It wasn't until October with a lot of German, Bulgarian, and Turkish assistance that Serbia was finally occupied, although the weakened Serbian army retreated to Corfu with Italian assistance and continued to fight against the central powers. Yugoslav Committee , a political interest group formed by South Slavs from Austria-Hungary during World War I, aimed at joining the existing south Slavic nations in an independent state. Montenegro declared war on 6 August Bulgaria, however, stood aside before eventually joining the Central Powers in , and Romania joined the Allies in In the Allies sent their ill-fated expedition to Gallipoli in the Dardanelles, and in the autumn of they established themselves in Salonika, establishing front.
However, their armies did not move from front until near end of the war, when they marched up north to free territories under rule of Central Powers. Bulgaria, the most populous of the Balkan states with 7 million people sought to acquire Macedonia but when it tried it was defeated in in the Second Balkan War. In Bulgaria stayed neutral. However its leaders still hoped to acquire Macedonia, which was controlled by an ally, Serbia. In joining the Central Powers seemed the best route.
The Bulgarian-German-Austrian invasion of Serbia in was a quick victory, but by the end of Bulgaria was also fighting the British and French—as well as the Romanians in and the Greeks in Bulgaria was ill-prepared for a long war; absence of so many soldiers sharply reduced agricultural output. Much of its best food was smuggled out to feed lucrative black markets elsewhere.
By the soldiers were not only short of basic equipment like boots but they were being fed mostly corn bread with a little meat. Germany increasingly was in control, and Bulgarian relations with its ally the Ottoman Empire soured. Troops mutinied and peasants revolted , demanding peace.
By month's end Bulgaria signed an armistice, giving up its conquests and its military hardware. The Czar abdicated and Bulgaria's war was over. The war had enormous repercussions for the Balkan peninsula. People across the area suffered serious economic dislocation, and the mass mobilization resulted in severe casualties, particularly in Serbia where over 1.
In less-developed areas World War I was felt in different ways: requisitioning of draft animals, for example, caused severe problems in villages that were already suffering from the enlistment of young men, and many recently created trade connections were ruined. The borders of many states were completely redrawn, and the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes , later Yugoslavia, was created.