The topics covered are central to the study of relationships between behavior and cardiovascular reactivity; the list of suggested readings at the end of each chapter provides excellent guidance for more detailed study of specific issues. The impact of that work extended across scientific disciplines as well as aross continents. At the time the Obrist book was published, a young psychologist, J.
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Rick Turner, was completing his Ph. After continued collaboration for the next several years with his former Ph. The enlightened legacy of the North Carolina laboratory can clearly be seen in this text. Toggle navigation. Signature Connexion Enregistrement Fundraising: Rick Turner auth.
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Edition: 1. Langue: english. ISBN File: PDF, The file will be sent to your email address. It may take up to minutes before you receive it. Acute complications include cough syncope fainting spells due to decreased blood flow to the brain when coughs are prolonged and forceful , insomnia , cough-induced vomiting , subconjunctival hemorrhage or " red eye ", coughing defecation and in women with a prolapsed uterus , cough urination. Chronic complications are common and include abdominal or pelvic hernias , fatigue fractures of lower ribs and costochondritis. Chronic or violent coughing can contribute to damage to the pelvic floor and a possible cystocele.
A cough in children may be either a normal physiological reflex or due to an underlying cause. A cough can be the result of a respiratory tract infection such as the common cold , acute bronchitis , pneumonia , pertussis , or tuberculosis. In the vast majority of cases, acute coughs, i.
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Pertussis is increasingly being recognised as a cause of troublesome coughing in adults. After a respiratory tract infection has cleared, the person may be left with a postinfectious cough. This typically is a dry, non-productive cough that produces no phlegm. Symptoms may include a tightness in the chest, and a tickle in the throat. This cough may often persist for weeks after an illness. The cause of the cough may be inflammation similar to that observed in repetitive stress disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome. The repetition of coughing produces inflammation which produces discomfort, which in turn produces more coughing.
Treatment consists of any anti-inflammatory medicine such as ipratropium  to treat the inflammation, and a cough suppressant to reduce frequency of the cough until inflammation clears. A bronchodilator, which helps open up the airways, may also help treat this type of cough. When coughing is the only complaint of a person who meets the criteria for asthma bronchial hyperresponsiveness and reversibility , this is termed cough-variant asthma. Two related conditions are atopic cough and eosinophilic bronchitis.
Atopic cough occurs in individuals with a family history of atopy an allergic condition , abundant eosinophils in the sputum, but with normal airway function and responsiveness. Eosinophilic bronchitis is also characterized by eosinophils in the sputum, without airway hyperresponsiveness or an atopic background.
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This condition responds to treatment with corticosteroids. Cough can also worsen in an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Asthma is a common cause of chronic cough in adults and children. Coughing may be the only symptom the person has from their asthma, or asthma symptoms may also include wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in their chest. Depending on how severe the asthma is, it can be treated with bronchodilators medicine which causes the airways to open up or inhaled steroids.
Treatment of the asthma should make the cough go away. Chronic bronchitis is defined clinically as a persistent cough that produces sputum phlegm and mucus, for at least three months in two consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is often the cause of " smoker's cough ". The tobacco smoke causes inflammation, secretion of mucus into the airway, and difficulty clearing that mucus out of the airways.
Cardiovascular reactivity and stress : patterns of physiological response
Coughing helps clear those secretions out. May be treated by quitting smoking. May also be caused by pneumoconiosis and long-term fume inhalation. In people with unexplained cough, gastroesophageal reflux disease should be considered.
Sometimes GERD can complicate respiratory ailments related to cough, such as asthma or bronchitis. The treatment involves anti-acid medications and lifestyle changes with surgery indicated in cases not manageable with conservative measures. Coughing may be caused by air pollution including tobacco smoke , particulate matter, irritant gases, and dampness in a home.
Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's health status and genetics. People who exercise outdoors on hot, smoggy days, for example, increase their exposure to pollutants in the air. A foreign body can sometimes be suspected, for example if the cough started suddenly when the patient was eating. Rarely, sutures left behind inside the airway branches can cause coughing.
A cough can be triggered by dryness from mouth breathing or recurrent aspiration of food into the windpipe in people with swallowing difficulties. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors are drugs used in diabetics, heart disease, and high blood pressure.
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Cessation of ACE Inhibitor use is the only way to stop the cough. Such medicines for hypertension are very common in use such as ramipril and quinapril. There are cases of "cough of unknown origin" who had resolution with stopping the drug. A psychogenic cough , " habit cough " or "tic cough" may be the cause in the absence of a physical problem. In these instances, emotional and psychological problems are suspected.
However, other illnesses have to be ruled out before a firm diagnosis of psychogenic cough is made. Psychogenic cough is thought to be more common in children than in adults. A possible scenario: psychogenic cough develops in a child who has a chronically ill brother or sister. Some cases of chronic cough may be attributed to a sensory neuropathic disorder.
Coughing may occur in tic disorders such as Tourette syndrome , although it should be distinguished from throat-clearing in this disorder. Cough may also be caused by conditions affecting the lung tissue such as bronchiectasis , cystic fibrosis , interstitial lung diseases and sarcoidosis. Coughing can also be triggered by benign or malignant lung tumors or mediastinal masses.
Through irritation of the nerve, diseases of the external auditory canal wax, for example can also cause cough. Cardiovascular diseases associated with cough are heart failure, pulmonary infarction and aortic aneurysm. Nocturnal cough is associated with heart failure, as the heart does not compensate for the increased volume shift to the pulmonary circulation, in turn causing pulmonary edema and resultant cough.
Given its irritant nature to mammal tissues, capsaicin is widely used to determine the cough threshold and as a tussive stimulant in clinical research of cough suppressants. Capsaicin is what makes chili peppers spicy, and might explain why workers in factories with these fruits can develop a cough. Coughing may also be used for social reasons, such as coughing before giving a speech.
Coughing is not always involuntary, and can be used in social situations. Coughing can be used to attract attention, release internal psychological tension, or become a maladaptive displacement behavior. It is believed that the frequency of such coughing increases in environments vulnerable to psychological tension and social conflict. In such environments, coughing may become one of many displacement behaviors or defense mechanisms.